吠陀

Rigveda(19世紀初的天城文梨俱吠陀手抄本)

吠陀梵語:वेद;拉丁轉譯為Veda,又譯為韋達經韋陀經圍陀經等),是婆羅門教和現代的印度教最重要和最根本的經典。「吠陀」意思是「知識」、「啟示」。

廣義的「吠陀」文獻包括很多種性質不同的經典,即吠陀本集、梵書森林書奧義書[1]

吠陀本集

四部吠陀本集是:

  • 梨俱吠陀》(歌詠明論,ऋग्वेद ,Ṛgveda),
  • 娑摩吠陀》(讚頌明論,सामवेद,Sāmaveda),
  • 夜柔吠陀》(祭祀明論,यजुर्वेदः ,Yajurveda),及
  • 阿闥婆吠陀》(禳災明論,अथर्ववेद,Atharvaveda)。

四部吠陀本集中以《梨俱吠陀》最早,最初的部分可以追溯到公元前2000年時代,正值印度河文明的時期,雅利安人大體居住在印度的西北印度河兩岸的時期。其他三卷吠陀經皆是《梨俱吠陀》的衍生作品,相繼成書於後,最晚集結完成的為《阿闥婆吠陀》。後三卷吠陀經中的神曲,不是部分《梨俱吠陀》神曲的復述,便是在它基礎上的發展而來。吠陀神曲有長有短,長曲是一曲多頌。短曲是一曲數頌或僅有一頌。多數頌由四句構成,少數由三句構成。

著作吠陀的時代被稱為印度的吠陀時期。它使用比印度梵語更為古老的語言,稱為吠陀梵語

梵書

梵書是以散文體寫成的關於吠陀宗教使用的各種複雜祭祀的講述和討論。最重要的梵書有《百道梵書》、《愛達羅氏梵書》、《海螺氏梵書》、《牛道梵書》等。

森林書

本質上和奧義書沒有什麼區別的一類著作,據說是「隱居在林中無法從事複雜的祭祀而代以冥思的老年人」的作品。存世的森林書很少。

奧義書

神秘主義哲學的著作,不再討論祭祀(或反對祭祀)。存世數量巨大。特別重要的有《歌者奧義書》、《廣林奧義書》等。

註釋

  1. ^ 《印度通史》,第63頁

參考文獻

  • 《印度通史》,商務印書館,書號:11017·224
  • Apte, Vaman Shivram, The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary 4th revised & enlarged, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1965, ISBN 81-208-0567-4 .
  • Avari, Burjor, India: The Ancient Past, London: Routledge, 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9 
  • Harold G. Coward. Karl Potter, 編. The Philosophy of the Grammarians, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies 5. Princeton University Press. 1990. ISBN 978-81-208-0426-5. 
  • Filliozat, Pierre-Sylvain, Ancient Sanskrit Mathematics: An Oral Tradition and a Written Literature, (編) Chemla, Karine; Cohen, Robert S.; Renn, Jürgen; 等, History of Science, History of Text (Boston Series in the Philosophy of Science), Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2004, ISBN 9781402023200 
  • Flood, Gavin, An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-43878-0 
  • Flood, Gavin (編), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 2003, ISBN 1-4051-3251-5 
  • Holdrege, Barbara A. Veda and Torah. SUNY Press. 1995. ISBN 0-7914-1639-9. 
  • MacDonell, Arthur Anthony, A History of Sanskrit Literature, New York: D. Appleton and Co, 1900, OCLC 713426994  (full text online)
  • Mahadevan, T. M. P, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan; Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia; Dhirendra Mohan Datta, 編, History of Philosophy, Eastern and Western, George Allen & Unwin, 1952, OCLC 929704391 
  • Michaels, Axel, Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-691-08953-1 
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (編), Dictionary, English and Sanskrit, London: Honourable East-India Company, 1851, OCLC 5333096  (reprinted 2006 as ISBN 1-881338-58-4)
  • Muir, John. Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India. Williams and Norgate. 1861. 
  • Müller, Max. Chips from a German Workshop. New York: C. Scribner's sons. 1891. .
  • Patrick Olivelle. Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Ancient India. Oxford University Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-283882-7. 
  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; Moore, Charles A. (編), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy 12th Princeton Paperback, Princeton University Press, 1957, ISBN 0-691-01958-4 
  • Staal, Frits, The Fidelity of Oral Tradition and the Origins of Science, Mededelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie von Wetenschappen, North Holland Publishing Company, 1986 
  • Smith, Brian K., Canonical Authority and Social Classification: Veda and 'Varṇa' in Ancient Indian Texts, History of Religions (The University of Chicago Press), 1992: 103–125, doi:10.2307/1062753 
  • Sullivan, B. M., The Religious Authority of the Mahabharata: Vyasa and Brahma in the Hindu Scriptural Tradition, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Summer 1994, 62 (1): 377–401, doi:10.1093/jaarel/LXII.2.377 
  • Annette Wilke; Oliver Moebus. Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism. Walter de Gruyter. 2011. ISBN 978-3-11-018159-3. 
  • Witzel, Michael (ed.), Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts. New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas, Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora vol. 2, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997 
  • Zaehner, R. C., Hindu Scriptures, London: Everyman's Library, 1966 

延伸閱讀

概論
  • J. Gonda, Vedic Literature: Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, A History of Indian literature. Vol. 1, Veda and Upanishads (1975), ISBN 978-3-447-01603-2.
  • J. A. Santucci, An Outline of Vedic Literature (1976).
  • S. Shrava, A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature — Brahmana and Aranyaka Works, Pranava Prakashan (1977).
深入報告
  • M. Bloomfield, A Vedic Concordance (1907)
  • Vishva Bandhu, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair (eds.), Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa: A Vedic Word-Concordance, Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur, 1963–1965, revised edition 1973-1976.
會議論文
  • Griffiths, Arlo and Houben, Jan E. M. (eds.), The Vedas : texts, language & ritual: proceedings of the Third International Vedic Workshop, Leiden 2002, Groningen Oriental Studies 20, Groningen : Forsten, (2004), ISBN 90-6980-149-3.

外部連結