奧義書

奧義書梵語:उपनिषद्,英文:Upanishad,意為「近坐」;引申為「秘密傳授」)古印度一類哲學文獻的總稱,是廣義的吠陀文獻之一。

雖然奧義書由吠陀發展而來,因而經常被理解為婆羅門教與印度教的經典,但奧義書並不都是由婆羅門階層寫的,也不都完全反映婆羅門教的觀點。實際上,某些奧義書敵視婆羅門祭司。[1]準確的說,奧義書是一種哲學論文或對話錄,討論哲學、冥想以及世界的本質。大多數奧義書成了研究神秘主義哲學的著作。關於奧義書的秘傳性質,在它們的行文中常有所反映。歌者奧義書說,關於的知識只能傳授給兒子或入室弟子,而決不能教給其他人。[2]

簡介

印度現存的奧義書多達兩百多種,但其中與吠陀關係緊密且產生年代較早的並不多。有的奧義書寫成時間晚至16世紀,甚至有宣傳伊斯蘭教思想而掛名奧義書者(如安拉奧義書)。有些研究者認為只有最早的五部奧義書(歌者奧義書,廣林奧義書,愛達羅氏奧義書,海螺氏奧義書,鷓鴣氏奧義書)可以稱得上是嚴格的吠陀正典。[3]中世紀的印度大哲學家商羯羅選出一些重要的奧義書作注,稱它們為「主要奧義書」(Mukhya Upanishad)。主要奧義書的名單並不一致,但一般包括以下幾種:

  1. 愛達羅氏奧義書(或譯為他氏奧義書,屬於梨俱吠陀
  2. 歌者奧義書(屬於娑摩吠陀
  3. 由誰奧義書(屬於娑摩吠陀)
  4. 廣林奧義書(屬於白夜柔吠陀)
  5. 自在奧義書(屬於白夜柔吠陀)
  6. 鷓鴣氏奧義書(或譯為泰帝利耶奧義書,屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  7. 石氏奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  8. 白騾奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  9. 禿頂奧義書(或譯為剃髮奧義書,屬於阿闥婆吠陀
  10. 蛙氏奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  11. 疑問奧義書(或譯為六問奧義書,屬於阿闥婆吠陀)

現代研究者通常認為,與吠陀時代末期的思想密切相關的奧義書有13種,即上述奧義書再加上屬於梨俱吠陀的海螺氏奧義書(又名憍屍多基奧義書)和屬於黑夜柔吠陀的慈氏奧義書(或譯為彌勒奧義書)。德國東方學家保羅·多伊森根據語言學將這13種奧義書分為3類:[4]

第一類是用散文體寫成的最古老的奧義書,產生時間在前800年至前500年之間,包括廣林奧義書、歌者奧義書、鷓鴣氏奧義書、海螺氏奧義書、愛達羅氏奧義書和由誰奧義書。

第二類是用詩體寫成的,產生時間在前500年至前1世紀之間,包括由誰奧義書、石氏奧義書、自在奧義書、白騾奧義書和禿頂奧義書。由誰奧義書兼有散文體和詩體,因此第一類與第二類都包括了它。

第三類是用後期散文體寫成的最晚近的奧義書,產生時間在公元前後,包括疑問奧義書、慈氏奧義書和蛙氏奧義書。

其他學者可能有不同的分期方法。如拉納德根據語言學和對書中思想發展的分析將上述13種分類為5組;拉達克利希南的分類與多伊森基本一致,但認為廣林奧義書中也有晚出的部分,而慈氏奧義書和白騾奧義書最晚,因為它們受到了數論瑜伽的影響。一般都認為廣林奧義書和歌者奧義書是現存最古老的奧義書,但二者誰更早的問題,尚無定論。

除了上述13種在印度哲學史研究中有特殊意義的奧義書外,其它一些重要奧義書包括:

  1. 金剛針奧義書(屬於娑摩吠陀)
  2. 離所緣奧義書(屬於白夜柔吠陀)
  3. 摩訶那羅延奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  4. 胎藏奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  5. 室建陀奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  6. 普度鬥爭世奧義書(屬於黑夜柔吠陀)
  7. 自我奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  8. 菁華奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  9. 糍供奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  10. 生氣火祀奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  11. 智頂奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)
  12. 舍利奧義書(屬於阿闥婆吠陀)

思想

奧義書在印度宗教與哲學的發展過程中有重大意義。在奧義書產生之前,吠陀時期的印歐人只敬拜上古諸神;梵書則大多是形式主義的祭祀手冊。奧義書最早集中精力討論宇宙的終極真理。奧義書中兩個最重要的概念是「我」和「」。奧義書用各種奇妙的比喻(很多在現代人看來是不可理解的)來說明,梵就是一切,也就是最高存在;人類的我(個體靈魂)來自宇宙的我,即梵(宇宙靈魂)。總之,宇宙就是梵,梵就是我;「梵我一如」這個最高真理就是奧義書主要宣揚的觀點。在奧義書的思想基礎上產生了吠檀多派,後來直接影響到印度教大改革者商羯羅。

另一個由奧義書系統搭建起來的重要觀念是輪迴業報。輪迴業報的觀點在梨俱吠陀中根本沒有,梵書中偶爾提及人死後可以轉生,只有奧義書完整建立了轉世者的轉世形態取決於他前世的所作所為()的思想。廣林奧義書說,轉世者「因善業而成為善人,因惡業而成為惡人」。[5]當然,從無盡的輪迴中解脫出來的方法也有,那就是認識到奧義書極力宣揚的「梵我一如」。

註釋

  1. ^ 印度兩大史詩評論彙編,314頁,溫特尼茨語
  2. ^ 歌者奧義書,3.11
  3. ^ 印度佛教史,渥德爾著,商務印書館,ISBN 7-100-02682-2/B·399
  4. ^ Sharma,B. N. Krishnamurti,Motilal Banarsidass Publishers,ISBN 9788120815759,17~19頁
  5. ^ 廣林奧義書,3.2

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外部連結