柳樹

」重定向至此。關於其他意思,詳見「柳 (消歧義)」。
 
垂柳 Salix x babylonica
垂柳 Salix x babylonica
垂柳 Salix × sepulcralis
垂柳 Salix × sepulcralis
科學分類
域: 真核域 Eukarya
界: 植物界 Plantae
門: 被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
綱: 雙子葉植物綱 Magnoliopsida
目: 金虎尾目 Malpighiales
科: 楊柳科 Salicaceae
屬: 柳屬 Salix
品種

約400種[1],詳見柳屬植物列表。

柳樹花絮特寫。

,或柳樹,是對柳屬(Salix)植物的統稱,其下共有四百多種物種[1],常見於北半球寒帶溫帶的濕潤泥土。

柳屬植物要進行雜交非常容易,不論是天然或是人工的混種都很普遍。舉例: A well-known ornamental example is the weeping willow (Salix × sepulcralis) 就是由來自歐洲白柳Salix alba)跟來自中國垂柳雜交而得。

主要品種

柳屬植物包括有差不多400個品種[1]落葉喬木灌木,以下為部份在世上較常見的品種:

  • Salix acutifolia Willd. – long-leaved violet willow
  • Salix aegyptiaca L.
  • Salix alaxensis (Andersson) Coville
  • Salix alba L. – 白柳
  • Salix amplexicaulis Bory & Chaub.
  • Salix amygdaloides Andersson – peachleaf willow
  • Salix ansoniana J. Forbes
  • Salix apennina A. K. Skvortsov
  • Salix apoda Trautv.
  • Salix appendiculata Vill.
  • Salix arbuscula L.
  • Salix arctica Pall. – 北極柳
  • Salix argyracea E. L. Wolf
  • Salix arizonica Dorn
  • Salix armenorossica A. K. Skvortsov
  • Salix atrocinerea Brot. – grey willow
  • Salix aurita L. – Eared Willow
  • Salix babylonica L. – 垂柳
  • Salix balfouriana C. K. Schneid.
  • Salix barclayi Andersson
  • Salix bebbiana Sarg. – beaked willow, long-beaked willow, and Bebb's willow
  • Salix bicolor Willd.
  • Salix bikouensis Y. L. Chou
  • Salix bonplandiana Kunth – Bonpland willow
  • Salix boothii Dorn – Booth's willow
  • Salix brachycarpa Nutt.
  • Salix breviserrata Flod.
  • Salix breweri Bebb – Brewer's willow
  • Salix burqinensis Chang Y. Yang
  • Salix caesia Vill.
  • Salix calcicola Fern. & Wieg. – limestone willow
  • Salix calliantha J.Kern.
  • Salix canariensis Chr. Sm.
  • Salix candida Flüggé ex Willd. – sageleaf willow
  • Salix cantabrica Rech. f.
  • Salix capensis Thunb.
  • Salix capitata Y. L. Chou & Skvortsov
  • Salix caprea L. – Goat willow, pussywillow or pussy willow
  • Salix capusii Franch.
  • Salix carmanica Bornm.
  • Salix caroliniana Michx. – coastal plain willow
  • Salix caspica Pall.
  • Salix cavaleriei H. Lév.
  • Salix chaenomeloides Kimura
  • Salix cinerea L. – grey willow
  • Salix cordata Michx. – sand dune willow, furry willow, or heartleaf willow
  • Salix delnortensis C.K.Schneid. – Del Norte willow
  • Salix discolor Muhl. – American willow
  • Salix drummondiana Barratt ex Hook. – Drummond's willow
  • Salix eastwoodiae Cockerell ex A.Heller – Eastwood's willow, mountain willow, or Sierra willow
  • Salix eriocephala Michx.
  • Salix excelsa S. G. Gmel.
  • Salix exigua Nutt. – sandbar willow, narrowleaf willow, or coyote willow
  • Salix fargesii Burkill
  • Salix floderusii Nakai
  • Salix fluviatilis Nutt.
  • Salix foetida Schleich. ex DC.
  • Salix fragilis L. – Crack Willow
  • Salix geyeriana Andersson – Geyer's willow
  • Salix gilgiana Seemen
  • Salix glabra Scop.
  • Salix glauca L.
  • Salix glaucosericea Flod.
  • Salix gooddingii C. R. Ball – Goodding's willow, or Goodding's black willow
  • Salix gordejevii Y. L. Chang & Skvortsov
  • Salix graciliglans Nakai
  • Salix gracilistyla Miq.
  • Salix guebriantiana細序柳[2]
  • Salix hastata L.
  • Salix hegetschweileri Heer
  • Salix helvetica Vill.
  • Salix herbacea L. – dwarf willow, least willow or snowbed willow
  • Salix hookeriana Barratt ex Hook. – dune willow, coastal willow, or Hooker's willow
  • Salix humboldtiana Willd.
  • Salix humilis Marshall
  • Salix hylematica C. K. Schneid.
  • Salix integra Thunb.
  • Salix irrorata Andersson
  • Salix japonica Thunb.
  • Salix jejuna Fernald – barrens willow
  • Salix jepsonii C.K.Schneid. – Jepson's willow
  • Salix jessoensis Seemen
  • Salix koreensis Andersson
  • Salix koriyanagi Kimura ex Goerz
  • Salix laevigata Bebb – red willow or polished willow
  • Salix lanata L. – woolly willow
  • Salix lapponum L.
  • Salix lasiolepis Benth. – arroyo willow
  • Salix lemmonii Bebb – Lemmon's willow
  • Salix ligulifolia C.R.Ball – strapleaf willow
  • Salix linearistipularis (Franch.) K. S. Hao
  • Salix longiflora Andersson
  • Salix longistamina Z. Wang & P. Y. Fu
  • Salix lucida Muhl. – shining willow, Pacific willow, or whiplash willow
  • Salix lutea Nutt. – yellow willow
  • Salix magnifica Hemsl.
  • Salix matsudana Koidz. – 旱柳(中國柳)
  • Salix maximowiczii Kom.
  • Salix medwedewii Dode
  • Salix melanopsis Nutt. – dusky willow
  • Salix microstachya Turcz.
  • Salix mielichhoferi Saut.
  • Salix miyabeana Seemen
  • Salix moupinensis Franch.
  • Salix mucronata - Cape silver willow
  • Salix muscina Dode ex Flod.
  • Salix myricoides Muhl.
  • Salix myrsinifolia Salisb.
  • Salix myrsinites L.
  • Salix myrtilloides L. – swamp willow
  • Salix neowilsonii W. P. Fang
  • Salix nigra Marshall – black willow
  • Salix nivalis Hook.
  • Salix orestera C.K.Schneid. – Sierra willow or gray-leafed Sierra willow
  • Salix paraplesia C. K. Schneid.
  • Salix pauciflora Koidz.
  • Salix pedicellata Desf.
  • Salix pellita Andersson
  • Salix pentandra L. – bay willow
  • Salix petiolaris Sm.
  • Salix phlebophylla Andersson
  • Salix phylicifolia L.
  • Salix planifolia Pursh. – diamondleaf willow or tea-leafed willow
  • Salix polaris Wahlenb. – polar willow
  • Salix prolixa Andersson – MacKenzie's willow
  • Salix pseudotangii山柳
  • Salix purpurea L. – purple willow or purple osier
  • Salix pyrenaica Gouan
  • Salix pyrifolia Andersson
  • Salix pyrolifolia Ledeb.
  • Salix rehderiana C. K. Schneid.
  • Salix repens L.
  • Salix reptans Rupr.
  • Salix reticulata L. – net-veined willow
  • Salix retusa L.
  • Salix retusoides J.Kern.
  • Salix rorida Lacksch.
  • Salix rosmarinifolia L.
  • Salix sajanensis Nasarow
  • Salix salviifolia Brot.
  • Salix schwerinii E. L. Wolf
  • Salix scouleriana Barratt ex Hook. – Scouler's willow
  • Salix sericea Marshall – silky willow
  • Salix serissima (L. H. Bailey) Fernald
  • Salix serpyllifolia Scop.
  • Salix sessilifolia Nutt. – northwest sandbar willow
  • Salix sitchensis C. A. Sanson ex Bong. – Sitka willow
  • Salix siuzevii Seemen
  • Salix starkeana Willd.
  • Salix subopposita Miq.
  • Salix subserrata Willd.
  • Salix suchowensis W. C. Cheng
  • Salix sungkianica Y. L. Chou & Skvortsov
  • Salix taxifolia Kunth – yew-leaf willow
  • Salix tenuijulis Ledeb.
  • Salix tetrasperma Roxb. – Indian willow
  • Salix tetradenia – 山黑柳[3]
  • Salix triandra L. – 杏柳/三蕊柳
  • Salix turanica Nasarow
  • Salix turfacea G. Haller ex Münchh.
  • Salix udensis Trautv. & C. A. Mey.
  • Salix uva-ursi Pursh. – bearberry willow
  • Salix variegata Franch.
  • Salix vestita Pursh. – silky willow
  • Salix viminalis L. – 柳條
  • Salix vulpina Andersson
  • Salix waldsteiniana Willd.
  • Salix wallichiana Andersson
  • Salix wilhelmsiana M. Bieb.
  • Salix wilsonii Seemen
  • Salix yezoalpina Koidz.

文化

古代的中國人視柳為軍營之樹,或者是與隱士相伴的一種樹。因為柳的生命力強,生長得也快,經常種在軍營周圍來作屏障。所以將軍的軍營營帳又被稱作柳營。如今,中國各地都有以柳城為名的。

軍事象徵

由契丹建立起來的,有射柳之禮之王朝儀式。清朝初期,為抵擋蒙古人的入侵,修建了小規模的城牆,植柳為棚,稱作柳條邊牆。[4]

隱士象徵

垂柳因其鬱鬱蔥蔥受到古代隱士的喜愛。

西晉竹林七賢之一的嵇康既是隱士也是個叛逆者。夏天時,他喜歡在院中大柳樹周圍擺上水,然後蹲在樹陰底下鑄劍,司隸校尉鍾會盛禮前去拜訪他,他照樣埋頭冶煉,不理不睬。後被鐘會構所陷害。

柳也是很多詩人所愛引用的對象,如東晉詩人陶淵明著《五柳先生傳》以明志。唐朝李白宋朝陸放翁等皆有與柳樹相關的詩句。

文學作品

  • 因「柳」與「留」、「九」 字諧音,所以古人常以此暗喻離別很。如「今宵醒何處?楊柳岸,曉風殘月」句中表現了永對高戀人或雅士才的思念。
  • 古時人常以楊柳作和朋友道別之用,因為楊柳枝葉細長,代表友情的長久。
  • 柳多種於檐前屋後,常作故鄉的象徵。
  • 柳絮飄忽不定,常作遣愁的憑藉。
  • 柳的有很多用途:建築、家具、日常用品,柳製老鷹風箏,以至棺材都可用柳木製造。

參考資料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mabberley, D.J. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press #2: Cambridge. 1997. 
  2. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210001929
  3. ^ http://big5.wiki8.com/shanheiliu_78674/
  4. ^ 宮崎市定、青木正兒等,2005年,《對中國文化的鄉愁》,上海:復旦大學出版社